mktime

(PHP 4, PHP 5)

mktimeGibt den Unix-Timestamp/Zeitstempel für ein Datum zurück

Beschreibung

int mktime ([ int $hour = date("H") [, int $minute = date("i") [, int $second = date("s") [, int $month = date("n") [, int $day = date("j") [, int $year = date("Y") [, int $is_dst = -1 ]]]]]]] )

Gibt den Unix-Timestamp entsprechend der gegebenen Argumente zurück. Dieser Timestamp ist ein Long Integer, der die Anzahl der Sekunden zwischen der Unix-Epoche (01. Januar 1970 00:00:00 GMT) und dem angegebenen Zeitpunkt enthält.

Einzelne Argumente können von rechts nach links weggelassen werden. Sie werden dann mit den Werten der lokalen Systemzeit bzw. des lokalen Systemdatums ersetzt.

Anmerkungen

Hinweis:

Seit PHP 5.1 wirft mktime() eine E_STRICT-Notice, wenn die Funktion ohne Argumente aufgerufen wird. Verwenden Sie in diesem Fall stattdessen die time()-Funktion.

Parameter-Liste

hour

Die Stunde.

minute

Die Minute.

second

Die Anzahl der Sekunden nach der Minute.

month

Der Monat.

day

Der Tag.

year

Die Jahreszahl, die zwei- oder vierstellig angegeben werden kann. Werte von 0 bis 69 werden auf 2000-2069 gemappt, Werte von 70 bis 100 auf 1970-2000. Auf Systemen, auf denen time_t ein 32-Bit Signed Integer ist (das sind die meisten der heutigen Systeme), beginnt der gültige Wertebereich für year bei 1901 und endet bei 2038. Allerdings begrenzen PHP-Versionen vor 5.1.0 den Bereich auf einigen Systemen (z.B. Windows) auf 1970-2038.

is_dst

is_dst kann bei Sommerzeit (DST) auf 1 gesetzt werden, der Wert 0 steht für Winter-/Normalzeit und -1 (Standardwert) heißt, dass unbekannt ist, ob gerade Sommer- oder Winterzeit herrscht. Sofern unbekannt, versucht PHP, dies selbst herauszufinden. Das kann zu unerwarteten (aber dennoch korrekten) Ergebnissen führen. Einige Zeitangaben sind ungültig, wenn die automatische Zeitumstellung auf dem System aktiviert ist, auf dem PHP läuft, oder auf dem der Parameter is_dst den Wert 1 hat. Wenn die Sommerzeit (DST) z.B. um 02:00 Uhr aktiviert wird, sind alle Zeitangaben zwischen 02:00 Uhr und 03:00 Uhr ungültig und mktime() gibt einen undefinierten (meist negativen) Wert zurück. Einige Betriebssyteme (z.B. Solaris 8) nehmen die Zeitumstellung um Mitternacht vor, so dass die Zeitangabe 0:30 als 23:30 des vorherigen Tages interpretiert wird.

Hinweis:

Seit PHP 5.1.0 gilt dieses Parameter als veraltet und wird nicht mehr zur Verwendung empfohlen. Verwenden Sie daher die neuen Features zum Handling von Zeitzonen.

Rückgabewerte

mktime() gibt den zu den übergebenen Argumenten passenden Unix-Timestamp zurück. Wenn die Argumente ungültig sind, gibt die Funktion FALSE zurück (vor PHP 5.1 wurde dann -1 zurückgegeben).

Fehler/Exceptions

Jeder Aufruf der Datums- und Zeitfunktionen generiert eine E_NOTICE-Warnung, wenn die Zeitzone ungültig ist und eine E_STRICT-Nachricht oder eine E_WARNING-Warnung, wenn die Systemeinstellung oder die TZ-Umgebungsvariable genutzt wird. Siehe auch date_default_timezone_set()

Changelog

Version Beschreibung
5.3.0 mktime() wirft nun eine E_DEPRECATED-Notice, wenn der is_dst verwendet wird.
5.1.0 Der Parameter is_dst wurde als veraltet markiert. Die Funktion gibt nun im Fehlerfall statt -1 FALSE zurück. Die Funktion wurde dahingehend gefixt, dass sie für Jahr, Monat und Tag auch den Wert 0 entgegennimmt.
5.1.0 Wenn ohne Argumente aufgerufen, wirft mktime() eine E_STRICT-Notice. Verwenden Sie stattdessen die Funktion time().
5.1.0

Erzeugt nun E_STRICT- und E_NOTICE-Zeitzonenfehler.

Beispiele

Beispiel #1 Einfaches mktime()-Beispiel

<?php
// Setzt die zu verwendende Standardzeitzone. Verfügbar seit PHP 5.1
date_default_timezone_set('UTC');

// Gibt aus: July 1, 2000 is on a Saturday
echo "July 1, 2000 is on a " date("l"mktime(000712000));

// Gibt etwas aus wie: 2006-04-05T01:02:03+00:00
echo date('c'mktime(123452006));
?>

Beispiel #2 mktime()-Beispiel

mktime() ist hilfreich bei Datumsberechnungen und -prüfungen, da automatisch das korrekte Datum für Werte außerhalb der gültigen Bereiche berechnet wird. So wird in den folgenden Beispielen immer die Zeichenkette "Jan-01-1998" ausgegeben.

<?php
echo date("M-d-Y"mktime(00012321997));
echo 
date("M-d-Y"mktime(0001311997));
echo 
date("M-d-Y"mktime(000111998));
echo 
date("M-d-Y"mktime(0001198));
?>

Beispiel #3 Letzter Tag des nächsten Monats

Der letzte Tag eines gegebenen Monats kann als Tag "0" des folgenden Monats ausgedrückt werden, nicht jedoch als Tag "-1". Beide folgenden Beispiele ergeben die Zeichenkette "Letzter Tag im Februar 2000 ist der 29."

<?php
$letzterTag 
mktime(000302000);
echo 
strftime("Letzter Tag im Februar 2000 ist der %d."$letzterTag);
$letzterTag mktime(0004, -312000);
echo 
strftime("Letzter Tag im Februar 2000 ist der %d."$letzterTag);
?>

Anmerkungen

Achtung

Vor PHP 5.1.0 wurden negative Timestamps von keiner bekannten Windowsversion oder anderen Betriebssystemen unterstützt. Daher war der Bereich gültiger Jahresangaben auf Werte zwischen 1970 und 2038 beschränkt.

Siehe auch

  • gmmktime() - Gibt einen Unix-Timestamp (Zeitstempel) für ein GMT Datum zurück
  • date() - Formatiert ein(e) angegebene(s) Ortszeit/Datum
  • time() - Gibt den aktuellen Unix-Timestamp/Zeitstempel zurück

add a note add a note

User Contributed Notes 21 notes

up
13
Alan
6 years ago
Do remember that, counter-intuitively enough, the arguments for month and day are inversed (or middle-endian). A common mistake for Europeans seems to be to feed the date arguments in the expected order (big endian or little endian).

It's clear to see where this weird order comes from (even with the date being big endian the order for all arguments would still be mixed - it's obviously based on the American date format with the time "prefixed" to allow an easier shorthand) and why this wasn't changed (passing the values in the wrong order produces a valid, though unexpected, result in most cases), but it continues to be a source of confusion for me whenever I come back to PHP from other languages or libraries.
up
8
joseph dot andrew dot hughes at gmail dot com
6 years ago
Just a small thing to think about if you are only trying to pull the month out using mktime and date.  Make sure you place a 1 into day field.  Otherwise you will get incorrect dates when a month is followed by a month with less days when the day of the current month is higher then the max day of the month you are trying to find.. (Such as today being Jan 30th and trying to find the month Feb.)
up
4
info at microweb dot lt
4 years ago
Function to generate array of dates between two dates (date range array)

<?php
function dates_range($date1, $date2)
{
   if (
$date1<$date2)
   {
      
$dates_range[]=$date1;
      
$date1=strtotime($date1);
      
$date2=strtotime($date2);
       while (
$date1!=$date2)
       {
          
$date1=mktime(0, 0, 0, date("m", $date1), date("d", $date1)+1, date("Y", $date1));
          
$dates_range[]=date('Y-m-d', $date1);
       }
   }
   return
$dates_range;
}

echo
'<pre>';
print_r(dates_range('2009-12-25', '2010-01-05'));
echo
'</pre>';
?>

[EDIT BY danbrown AT php DOT net: Contains a bugfix submitted by (carlosbuz2 AT gmail DOT com) on 04-MAR-2011, with the following note: The first date in array is incorrect.]
up
4
tom at chegg dot com
4 years ago
I was using the following to get a list of month names.

for ($i=1; $i<13; $i++) {
  echo date('F', mktime(0,0,0,$i) . ",";
}

Normally this outputs -
January,February,March,April,May,June,July,August,
September,October,November,December

However if today's date is the 31st you get instead:
January,March,March,May,May,July,July,August,October,
October,December,December

Why? Because Feb,Apr,June,Sept, and Nov don't have 31 days!

The fix, add the 5th parameter, don't let the day of month default to today's date:

  echo date('F', mktime(0,0,0,$i,1) . ",";
up
3
thomas_corthals at hotmail dot com
6 years ago
It seems mktime() doesn't return negative timestamps on Linux systems with a version of glibc <= 2.3.3.
up
1
Rad
7 months ago
Be careful passing zeros into mktime, in most cases a zero will count as the previous unit of time. The documentation explains this yet most of the comments here still use zeroes.

For example, if you pass the year 2013 into mktime, with zeroes for everything else, the outcome is probably not what you are looking for.

<?php
echo date('F jS, Y g:i:s a', mktime(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2013));
// November 30th, 2012 12:00:00 am
?>

Instead of using 0's, try 1's. This makes more sense (except for minutes/seconds). Maybe not as obvious of a purpose as zeroes to other programmers, though.

<?php
echo date('F jS, Y g:i:s a', mktime(1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2013));
// January 1st, 2013 1:01:01 am
?>
up
2
ronnie dot kurniawan at gmail dot com
5 years ago
Add (and subtract) unixtime:

<?php
function utime_add($unixtime, $hr=0, $min=0, $sec=0, $mon=0, $day=0, $yr=0) {
 
$dt = localtime($unixtime, true);
 
$unixnewtime = mktime(
     
$dt['tm_hour']+$hr, $dt['tm_min']+$min, $dt['tm_sec']+$sec,
     
$dt['tm_mon']+1+$mon, $dt['tm_mday']+$day, $dt['tm_year']+1900+$yr);
  return
$unixnewtime;
}
?>
up
0
zfowler at unomaha dot edu
4 years ago
Proper way to convert Excel dates into PHP-friendly timestamps using mktime():

<?php
// The date 6/30/2009 is stored as 39994 in Excel
$days = 39994;

// But you must subtract 1 to get the correct timestamp
$ts = mktime(0,0,0,1,$days-1,1900);

// So, this would then match Excel's representation:
echo date("m/d/Y",$ts);
?>

Excel uses "number of days since Jan. 1, 1900" to store its dates.  It also treats 1900 as a leap year when it wasn't, thus there is an extra day which must be accounted for in PHP (and the rest of the world).  Subtracting 1 from Excel's number will fix this problem.
up
0
PHPcoder at freemail dot ig3 dot net
7 years ago
The maximum possible date accepted by mktime() and gmmktime() is dependent on the current location time zone.

For example, the 32-bit timestamp overflow occurs at 2038-01-19T03:14:08+0000Z.  But if you're in a UTC -0500 time zone (such as EST in North America), the maximum accepted time before overflow (for older PHP versions on Windows) is 2038-01-18T22:14:07-0500Z, regardless of whether you're passing it to mktime() or gmmktime().
up
0
rga at merchantpal dot com
7 years ago
You cannot simply subtract or add month VARs using mktime to obtain previous or next months as suggested in previous user comments (at least not with a DD > 28 anyway).

If the date is 03-31-2007, the following yeilds March as a previous month. Not what you wanted.

<?php
$dateMinusOneMonth
= mktime(0, 0, 0, (3-1), 312007 );
$lastmonth = date("n | F", $dateMinusOneMonth);
echo
$lastmonth;    //---> 3 | March
?>

mktime correctly gives you back the 3rd of March if you subtract 1 month from March 31 (there are only 28 days in Feb 07).

If you are just looking to do month and year arithmetic using mktime, you can use general days like 1 or 28 to do stuff like this:

<?php
$d_daysinmonth
= date('t', mktime(0,0,0,$myMonth,1,$myYear));     // how many days in month
$d_year = date('Y', mktime(0,0,0,$myMonth,1,$myYear));        // year
$d_isleapyear = date('L', mktime(0,0,0,$myMonth,1,$myYear));    // is YYYY a leapyear?

$d_firstdow = date('w', mktime(0,0,0,$myMonth,'1',$myYear));     // FIRST falls on what day of week (0-6)
$d_firstname = date('l', mktime(0,0,0,$myMonth,'1',$myYear));     // FIRST falls on what day of week Full Name

$d_month = date('n', mktime(0,0,0,$myMonth,28,$myYear));         // month of year (1-12)
$d_monthname = date('F', mktime(0,0,0,$myMonth,28,$myYear));         // Month Long name (July)
$d_month_previous = date('n', mktime(0,0,0,($myMonth-1),28,$myYear));         // PREVIOUS month of year (1-12)
$d_monthname_previous = date('F', mktime(0,0,0,($myMonth-1),28,$myYear));     // PREVIOUS Month Long name (July)
$d_month_next = date('n', mktime(0,0,0,($myMonth+1),28,$myYear));         // NEXT month of year (1-12)
$d_monthname_next = date('F', mktime(0,0,0,($myMonth+1),28,$myYear));         // NEXT Month Long name (July)
$d_year_previous = date('Y', mktime(0,0,0,$myMonth,28,($myYear-1)));        // PREVIOUS year
$d_year_next = date('Y', mktime(0,0,0,$myMonth,28,($myYear+1)));        // NEXT year

$d_weeksleft = (52 - $d_weekofyear);                     // how many weeks left in year
$d_daysinyear = $d_isleapyear ? 366 : 365;                // set correct days in year for leap years
$d_daysleft = ($d_daysinyear - $d_dayofyear);                // how many days left in year
?>
up
-1
ooogla at hotmail dot com
6 years ago
If you want to increment the day based on a variable when using a loop you can use this when you submit a form

1. Establish a start date and end date in two different variables

2. Get the number of days between a date

$ndays = (strtotime($_POST['edate']) - strtotime($_POST['sdate'])) / (60 * 60 * 24);

Then here is the string you slip in your loop

$nextday  = date('Y-m-d', mktime(0, 0, 0, date("m", strtotime($_POST['sdate']))  , date("d", strtotime($_POST['sdate']))+ $count, date("Y", strtotime($_POST['sdate']))));

$count is incremented by the loop.
up
-2
ionut dot bodea at eydos dot ro
6 years ago
Here is what I use to calculate age. It took me 30 minutes to write and it's quite accurate. What it has special is that it's calculating the number of days a year has (float number), by testing if a year is a leap one or not. This number is used to compute the age.

<?php
function get_age($date_start, $date_end) {
   
$t_lived = get_timestamp($date_end) - get_timestamp($date_start);
   
$seconds_one_year = get_days_per_year($date_start, $date_end) * 24 * 60 * 60;
   
$age = array();
   
$age['years_exact'] = $t_lived / $seconds_one_year;
   
$age['years'] = floor($t_lived / $seconds_one_year);
   
$seconds_remaining = $t_lived % $seconds_one_year;
   
$age['days'] = round($seconds_remaining / (24 * 60 * 60));
    return
$age;
}
function
get_timestamp($date) {
    list(
$y, $m, $d) = explode('-', $date);
    return
mktime(0, 0, 0, $m, $d, $y);
}
function
get_days_per_year($date_start, $date_end) {
    list(
$y1) = explode('-', $date_start);
    list(
$y2) = explode('-', $date_end);
   
$years_days = array();
    for(
$y = $y1; $y <= $y2; $y++) {
       
$years_days[] = date('L', mktime(0, 0, 0, 1, 1, $y)) ? 366 : 365;
    }
    return
round(array_sum($years_days) / count($years_days), 2);
}

$date_birth = '1979-10-12';
$date_now = date('Y-m-d');

$age = get_age($date_birth, $date_now);
echo
'<pre>';
print_r($age);
echo
'</pre>';
?>


It will display something like this:
Array
(
    [years_exact] => 28.972974329491
    [years] => 28
    [days] => 355
)
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-2
yan
6 years ago
caculate days between two date

<?php
 
// end date is 2008 Oct. 11 00:00:00
 
$_endDate = mktime(0,0,0,11,10,2008);
 
// begin date is 2007 May 31 13:26:26
 
$_beginDate = mktime(13,26,26,05,31,2007);

 
$timestamp_diff= $_endDate-$_beginDate +1 ;
 
// how many days between those two date
 
$days_diff = $timestamp_diff/86400;

?>
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-3
cebleo at n-trance dot net
5 years ago
to ADD or SUBSTRACT times NOTE that if you dont specify the UTC zone your result is the difference +- your server UTC delay.

if you are ina utc/GMT +1

<?php
$hours_diff
= strtotime("20:00:00")-strtotime("19:00:00");
echo 
date('h:i', $hours_diff)." Hours";
?>

it shows: 02:00 Hours

but if you use a default UTC time:

<?php
date_default_timezone_set
('UTC');
$hours_diff = strtotime("20:00:00")-strtotime("19:00:00");
echo
"<br>". date('h:i', $hours_diff);
?>

it shows: 01:00 Hours.
up
-2
info at djdb dot be
1 year ago
raw date to clean timestamp
private function dateToTimestamp($date){
        $datefrom = explode(" ", $date);
        $value = array();
        if(strpos($datefrom[0], '-')){
            //print "issplit -";
            $value = explode("-", $datefrom[0]);
        }
        if(strpos($datefrom[0], '/')){
            //print "issplit /";
            $value = explode("/", $datefrom[0]);
        }
        /*if(){
           
        }*/
        if(strlen($value[2])==4){//13/12/2012
            //int mktime([hour[minute[second[month[day[year
            return mktime(0, 0, 0,$value[1],$value[0],$value[2]);
        }else{                  //2012/12/13
            //int mktime([hour[minute[second[month[day[year
            return mktime(0, 0, 0,$value[1],$value[2],$value[0]);
        }
    }
up
-3
Stephen
7 years ago
There are several warnings here about using mktime() to determine a date difference because of daylight savings time. However, nobody seems to have mentioned the other obvious problem, which is leap years.

Leap years mean that any effort to use mktime() and time() to determine the age (positive or negative) of some timestamp in years will be flawed. There are some years that are 366 days long, therefore you cannot say that there is a set number of seconds per year.

Timestamps are good for determining *real* time, which is not the same thing as *human calendar* time. The Gregorian calendar is only an approximation of real time, which is tweaked with daylight savings time and leap years to make it conform more to humans' expectations of how time should or ought to work. Timestamps are not tweaked and therefore are the only authoritative way of recording in computers a proper order of succession of events, but they cannot be integrated with a Gregorian system unless you take both leap years and DST into account. Otherwise, you may get the wrong number of years when you are approaching a value of exactly X years.

As for PHP, you could still use timestamps as a way of determining age if you took into account not only DST but also whether or not each year is a leap year and adjusted your calculations accordingly. However, this could become messy and inefficient.

There is an alternative approach to calculating days given the day, month and year of the dates to be compared. Compare the years first, and then compare the month and day - if the month and day have already passed (or, if you like, if they match the current month and day), then add 1 to the total for the years.

This solution works because it stays within the Gregorian system and doesn't venture into the world of timestamps.

There is also the issue of leap seconds, but this will only arise if you literally need to get the *exact* age in seconds. In that case, of course, you would also need to verify that your timestamps are exactly correct and are not delayed by script processing time, plus you would need to determine whether your system conforms to UTC, etc. I expect this will hardly be an issue for anybody using PHP, however if you are interested there is an article on this issue on Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leap_second
up
-4
rlz
7 years ago
Finding out the number of days in a given month and year, accounting for leap years when February has more than 28 days.

<?php
function days_in_month($year, $month) {
    return(
date( "t", mktime( 0, 0, 0, $month, 1, $year) ) );
}
?>

Hope it helps a soul out there.
up
-4
Jacob Santos
2 years ago
Please note that incrementing a date using mktime in a loop is not proper. You could do it, except that there is a far better method found in the DateTime PHP class. Look at the documentation for DateTime::modify, DateTime::add (when supported) and DateTime::sub (when supported).

Also, adding seconds to a time is, well it isn't as easy as it seems, "Hey I'll just add 3600 seconds or 86400 seconds or x seconds!". The phrase once bitten, twice shy is quite applicable with the usage of adding seconds. If you ever had to 'fix' a time by calculating midnight to add the correct number of seconds, then you are doing it wrong.

Luckily, knowing is not a requirement, because DateTime and friends exists, removing the complexity for you.

So if given a choice of

mktime($seconds, $minutes, $hours+1);

and

$datetime->modify('+1 hour');

or

$datetime->add('P1H');

I'll go with the second choice, but probably not the third, unless I was using DateInterval::createFromDateString, so that other developers knew my intent.
up
-3
delfino dot salinas at gmail dot com
8 months ago
this function returns the number of days of a provided month and year, it consider the actual rules for leap years

(if the year is multiple of 4 which is not a multiple of 100 unless multiple of thousand then is a leap)
Regards, hope this function solves any issue :)

function daysinmonth($month,$year) {
$dim = 0;
switch ($month) {
    case 1:
    case 3:
    case 5:
    case 7:
    case 8:
    case 10:
    case 12:
        $dim=31;
        break;
    case 4:
    case 6:
    case 9:
    case 11:
        $dim=30;
        break;
    case 2:
        if($year%4==0) {
            if($year%100==0) {
                if($year%1000==0) { $dim=29; } else { $dim=28; }
            } else {
                $dim=29;
            }
        } else {$dim=28;}
        break;
    }
    return($dim);
}
up
-4
mogster at redesign dot no
8 months ago
Just a simple function to return mktime from a db (mysql) datetime (Y-m-d H:i:s):

function retMktimest($dbdate) {
  return mktime(substr($dbdate, 11, 2), substr($dbdate, 14, 2), substr($dbdate, 17, 2), substr($dbdate, 5, 2), substr($dbdate, 8, 2), substr($dbdate, 0, 4));
}
up
-9
contact at phpmember dot com
4 years ago
How many days have  passed since the beginning of the year.... regardless of what year it is...

<?php
//Carlos Galindo
//phpmember.com

$days = floor((time()-mktime(null,null,null,1,0,date("Y")))/86400);
           
echo
"$days days have passed";

//Good Luck
?>
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