SunshinePHP 2019 CFP Started

Balises PHP

Lorsque PHP traite un fichier, il cherche les balises d'ouverture et de fermeture (<?php et ?>) qui délimitent le code qu'il doit interpréter. De cette manière, cela permet à PHP d'être intégré dans toutes sortes de documents, car tout ce qui se trouve en dehors des balises ouvrantes / fermantes de PHP est ignoré.

PHP autorise aussi la balise ouvrante dite "courte" <? (que nous vous conseillons vivement de ne pas utiliser car elle n'est disponible que lors de l'activation de la directive de configuration short_open_tag du php.ini, ou si PHP a été configuré avec l'option --enable-short-tags ).

Si un fichier est purement du code PHP, il est préférable de ne pas placer la balise de fermeture à la fin du fichier. Ceci permet d'éviter d'oublier un espace ou une nouvelle ligne après la balise de fermeture de PHP, ce qui causerait des effets non voulus car PHP commencera à afficher la sortie, ce qui n'est souvent pas ce qui est désiré.

echo "Bonjour le monde !";

// ... encore du code

echo "Dernière instruction";

// le script se termine ici, sans la balise de fermeture PHP

Version Description
7.0.0 Les balises ASP <%, %>, <%=, et les balises script <script language="php"> ont été supprimées de PHP.
5.4.0 La balise <?= est toujours disponible indépendamment de la configuration de l'option INI short_open_tag.

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User Contributed Notes 5 notes

crazytonyi at gmail dot com
2 years ago
Regarding earlier note by @purkrt :

> I would like to stress out that the opening tag is "<?php[whitespace]", not just "<?php"

This is absolutely correct, but the wording may confuse some developers less familiar with the extent of the term "[whitespace]".

Whitespace, in this context, would be any character that generated vertical or horizontal space, including tabs ( \t ), newlines ( \n ), and carriage returns ( \r ), as well as a space character ( \s ). So reusing purkrt's example:

<?php/*blah*/ echo "a"?>

would not work, as mentioned, but :

<?php /*php followed by space*/ echo "a"?>

will work, as well as :

/*php followed by end-of-line*/ echo "a"?>

and :

<?php    /*php followed by tab*/ echo "a"?>

I just wanted to clarify this to prevent anyone from misreading purkrt's note to mean that a the opening tag --even when being on its own line--required a space ( \s ) character. The following would work but is not at all necessary or how the earlier comment should be interpreted :

/*php followed by a space and end-of-line*/ echo "a"?>

The end-of-line character is whitespace, so it is all that you would need.
Mark Clements (
3 months ago
Closing PHP tags are recognised within single-line comments:

// Code will end here ?> This is output as literal text.

# Same with this method of commenting ?> This is output as literal text.

However they do not have an effect in C-style comments:

/* Code will not end here ?> as closing tags are ignored inside C-style comments. */
dave at juuce dot com
7 months ago
// ///////
// comments

Found that single line comments cause issues and received "notice: use of undefined constant php - assumed 'php'" for line 1 of file.

// //////
// comments

Add a space character after <?php on the first line corrects the problem.
raoni at gmail dot com
3 months ago
If short_open_tag = Off

<?php/*php not followed by space*/ echo "a"?>
This will not be parsed by php

If short_open_tag = On

<?php/*php not followed by space*/ echo "a"?>
This will be parsed by php, but it throw "Parse error: Syntax error ..." because because 'php' will be assumed as a constant

<?/*? not followed by space*/ echo "a"?>
This will be parsed by php,  and work fine.

(Tested in php 7.1)
purkrt at gmail dot com
3 years ago
I would like to stress out that the opening tag is "<?php[whitespace]", not just "<?php". While this might seem blatantly obvious, I thought for some time that

<?php/*blah*/ echo "a"?>

would work, and it does not; the comment does not work as whitespace. I've run into this while converting some older code with short open tag.
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